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Here are a few types of misinformation commonly encountered in print and web publications:
Satire or parody
Misleading use of information; False connections
The rigorous process of peer review helps to eliminate such content, and instill trust and credibility in scholarly literature.
So What Is Peer Review, Exactly?
"Said of a scholarly journal that requires an article to be subjected to a process of critical evaluation by one or more experts on the subject, known as referees, responsible for determining if the subject of the article falls within the scope of the publication and for evaluating originality, quality of research, clarity of presentation, etc. Changes may be suggested to the author(s) before an article is finally accepted for publication. In evaluation for tenure and promotion, academic librarians may be given publishing credit only for articles accepted by peer-reviewed journals."
Reitz, J.M. (2019). Peer reviewed. In Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. https://www.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_p
Peer review is sometimes referred to as “refereed,” or “juried.”
The referees are researchers, professors and others who are competent in the subject area.
It is important to note that all peer reviewed publications are scholarly but not all scholarly publications are peer reviewed.
Some journals only require that a submitted article is reviewed by the Editor(s).
The Peer Review Process
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (n.d.). Peer Review Process Visual Guide. https://academy.pubs.asha.org/prep-the-asha-journals-peer-review-excellence-program/peer-review-process/
Peer Review Targets
Scope: is the article appropriate for this publication?
Novelty: is this original material distinct from previous publications?
Validity: is the study well designed and executed w/accurate citations?
Data: are the data reported, analyzed, and interpreted correctly?
Clarity: are the ideas expressed and supported clearly, concisely, and logically?
Compliance: are all ethical and journal requirements met?
Advancement: is this a significant contribution to the field?